Symbolic algebra and Mathematics with Xcas

Renée De Graeve, Bernard Parisse1,
Jay Belanger2
Sections written by Luka Marohnić3

© 2002, 2007 Renée De Graeve, Bernard Parisse


Chapter 1  Index


Chapter 2  Introduction

2.1  Notations used in this manual

In this manual, the information that you enter will be typeset in typewriter font. User input typically takes one of three forms:

The index will use different typefaces for different parts of the language. The commands themselves will be written with normal characters, command options will be written in italics and values of commands or options will be written in typewriter font. For example (as you will see later), you can draw a blue parabola with the command

plotfunc(x^2,color = blue)

In the index, you will see

2.2  Interfaces for the giac library

The giac library is a C++ mathematics library. It comes with two interfaces for users to use it directly; a graphical interface and a command-line interface.

The graphical interface is called Xcas, and is the most full-featured interface. As well being able to do symbolic and numeric calculations, it has its own programming language, it can draw graphs, it has a built-in spreadsheet, it can do dynamic geometry and turtle graphics.

The command-line interface can be run inside a terminal. It can also do symbolic and numeric calculations and works with the programming language. In a graphical environment, the command-line interface can also be used to draw graphs.

There is also a web version, which can be run through a browser, either over the internet or from local files. Other programs (for example, TeXmacs) have interfaces for the command-line version.

Chapter 3  The Xcas interface

3.1  The entry levels

The Xcas interface can run several independent calculation sessions, each session will be contained in a separate tab. Before you understand the Xcas interface, it would help to be familiar with the components of a session.

Each session can have any number of input levels. Each input level will have a number to the left of it; the number is used to identify the input level. Each level can have one of the following:

Using commands discussed later, different types of levels can be combined to form a single hybrid level. Levels can also be moved up or down in a session, or even moved to a different session.

The level containing the cursor is the current level. The current level can be evaluated or re-evaluated by typing enter.

A level can be selected (for later operations) by clicking on the number in the white box to the left of the level. Once selected, the box containing the number will turn black. You can select a range of levels by clicking on the number for the beginning level, and then holding the shift key while you click on the number for the ending level.

3.2  The starting window

When you first start Xcas, you will be given a largely blank window.

The first row will be the main menus; you can save and load Xcas sessions, configure Xcas and its interface and run various commands with entries from these menus.

The second row will be tabs; one tab for each session that you are running in Xcas. The tabs will contain the name of the sessions, or Unnamed if a session has no name. The first time you start Xcas, there will be only one unnamed session.

The third row will contain various buttons.

3.3  Getting help

Xcas is an extensive program, but you can get help in several different ways.

3.4  The menus

3.5  Configuring Xcas

3.6  Printing and saving

3.7  Translating to other computer languages

Xcas can translate a session, or parts of a session, to other computer languages; notably LATEX and MathML.

Chapter 4  Entry in Xcas

4.1  Suppressing output

If you enter a command into Xcas, the result will appear in the output box below the input. If you enter

a := 2+2



will appear in the output box. You can evaluate the input and suppress the output with the nodisp command. If you enter

nodisp(a := 2+2)

then a will still be set to 4, but the result will not appear in the output box. Instead,


will appear.

An alternate way of suppressing the output is to end the input with :;, if you enter

b := 3+3:;

then b will be set to 6 but it won’t be displayed.

4.2  Entering comments

You can annotate an Xcas session by adding comments. You can enter a comment on the current line at any time by typing Alt+C. The line will appear in green text and conclude when you type Enter. Comments are not evaluated and so have no output. If you have begun entering a command when you begin a comment, the command line be pushed down so that you can finish it when you complete the comment.

You can open the browser in a comment line by entering the web address beginning with the @ sign. If you enter the comment line

The Xcas homepage is at

then the browser will open to the Xcas home page.

To add a comment to a program, rather than a session, you can use the comment command, which takes a string as an argument. Alternatively, any part of a program between // and the end of the line is a comment. So both

bs() := {comment("Hello"); return "Hi there!";}


bs() := { // Hello
return "Hi there!";}

are programs with the comment "Hello".

4.3  Editing expressions

You can enter expressions on the command line, but Xcas also has a built-in expression editor that you can use to enter expressions in two dimensions, the way they normally look when typeset. When you have an expression in the editor, you can also manipulate subexpressions apart from the entire expression.

4.4  Previous results

The ans command will return the results of previous commands. The input to ans is the number of the command, beginning with 0. If the first command that you enter is


resulting in


then later references to ans(0) will evaluate to 7.

Note that the argument to ans doesn’t correspond to the line number in Xcas. For one thing, the line numbers begin at 1. What’s more, if you go back and re-evaluate a previous line, then that will become part of the commands that ans keeps track of.

If you give ans a negative number, then it counts backwards from the current input. To get the latest output, for example, you can use ans(-1). With no argument, ans() wil also return the latest output.

Similarly, quest will return the previous inputs. Since these will often be simplified to be the same as the output, quest(n) sometimes has the same value as ans(n).

You can also use Ctrl plus the arrow keys to scroll through previous inputs. With the cursor on the command line, Ctrl+uparrow will go backwards in the list of previous commands and Ctrl+downarrow will go forwards.

4.5  Spreadsheet

4.6  Variables

4.7  Functions

4.8  Directories

Chapter 5  The CAS functions

5.1  Symbolic constants : e pi infinity i

e is the number exp(1);
pi is the number π.
infinity is unsigned ∞.
+infinity is +∞.
-infinity is −∞.
i is the complex number i.

5.2  Booleans

5.3  Bitwise operators

5.4  Strings

5.5  Write an integer in base b: convert

convert or convertir can do different kind of conversions depending on the option given as the second argument.

To convert an integer n into the list of its coefficients in base b, the option is base. The arguments of convert or convertir are an integer n, base and b, the value of the basis.
convert or convertir returns the list of coefficients in a b basis of the integer n.
Input :


Output :


To check the answer, input expr("0173") or horner(revlist([3,7,1]),8) or convert([3,7,1],base,8), the output is 123
Input :


Output :


To convert the list of coefficients of an integer n in base b, the option is also base. convert or convertir returns the integer n.
Input :


or :


Output :


Input :


or :


Output :


5.6  Integers (and Gaussian Integers)

For all functions in this section, you can use Gaussian integers (numbers of the form a+ib, where a and b are in ℤ) in place of integers.

5.7  Combinatorial analysis

5.8  Rationals

5.9  Real numbers

5.10  Permutations

A permutation p of size n is a bijection from [0..n−1] on [0..n−1] and is represented by the list : [p(0),p(1),p(2)...p(n−1)].
For example, the permutation p represented by [1,3,2,0] is the application from [0,1,2,3] on [0,1,2,3] defined by :

p(0)=1, p(1)=3, p(2)=2,  p(3)=0 

A cycle c of size p is represented by the list [a0,...,ap−1] (0≤ akn−1) it is the permutation such that

c(ai)=ai+1  for (i=0..p−2),    c(ap−1)=a0,     c(k)=k  otherwise

A cycle c is represented by a list and a cycle decomposition is represented by a list of lists.
For example, the cycle c represented by the list [3,2,1] is the permutation c defined by c(3)=2, c(2)=1, c(1)=3, c(0)=0 (i.e. the permutation represented by the list [0,3,1,2]).

5.11  Complex numbers

Note that complex numbers are also used to represent a point in the plane or a 1-d function graph.

5.12  Algebraic expressions

5.13  Values of un

5.14  Operators or infixed functions

An operator is an infixed function.

5.15  Functions and expressions with symbolic variables

5.16  Functions

5.17  Derivation and applications.

5.18  Integration

5.19  Calculus of variations

5.20  Limits

5.21  Rewriting transcendental and trigonometric expressions

5.22  Trigonometry

5.23  Fourier transformation

5.24  Audio Tools

5.25  Signal Processing

5.26  Exponentials and Logarithms

5.27  Polynomials

A polynomial of one variable is represented either by a symbolic expression or by the list of its coefficients in decreasing powers order (dense representation). In the latter case, to avoid confusion with other kinds of list

Note that polynomials represented as lists of coefficients are always written in decreasing powers order even if increasing power is checked in cas configuration.

A polynomial of several variables is represented

5.28  Arithmetic and polynomials

Polynomials are represented by expressions or by list of coefficients by decreasing power order. In the first case, for instructions requiring a main variable (like extended gcd computations), the variable used by default is x if not specified. For modular coefficients in ℤ/nℤ, use % n for each coefficient of the list or apply it to the expression defining the polynomial.

5.29  Orthogonal polynomials

5.30  Gröbner basis and Gröbner reduction

5.31  Rational fractions

5.32  Exact roots of a polynomial

5.33  Exact roots and poles

5.34  Computing in ℤ/pℤ or in ℤ/pℤ[x]

The way to compute over ℤ/pℤ or over ℤ/pℤ[x] depends on the syntax mode :


5.35  Compute in ℤ/pℤ[x] using Maple syntax

5.36  Taylor and asymptotic expansions

5.37  Intervals

5.38  Sequences

5.39  Sets

5.40  Lists and vectors

5.41  Functions for vectors

5.42  Statistics functions : mean,variance,stddev, stddevp,median,quantile,quartiles,boxwhisker

The functions described here may be used if the statistics series is contained in a list. See also section 5.45.31 for matrices.

Define the list A by:


Outputs :

  1. 11/2 for mean(A)
  2. sqrt(143/12) for stddev(A)
  3. 0 for min(A)
  4. [1.0] for quantile(A,0.1)
  5. [2.0] for quantile(A,0.25)
  6. [5.0] for median(A) or for quantile(A,0.5)
  7. [8.0] for quantile(A,0.75)
  8. [9.0] for quantile(A,0.9)
  9. 11 for max(A)
  10. [[0.0],[2.0],[5.0],[8.0],[11.0]] for quartiles(A)

5.43  Table with strings as indexes : table

A table is an associative container (or map), it is used to store information associated to indexes which are much more general than integers, like strings or sequences. It may be used for example to store a table of phone numbers indexed by names.
In Xcas, the indexes in a table may be any kind of Xcas objects. Access is done by a binary search algorithm, where the sorting function first sorts by type then uses an order for each type (e.g. < for numeric types, lexicographic order for strings, etc.)
table takes as argument a list or a sequence of equalities index_name=element_value.
table returns this table.
Input :


Input :


Output :


Input :


Output :


If you assign T[n]:= ... where T is a variable name and n an integer

5.44  Usual matrix

A matrix is represented by a list of lists, all having the same size. In the Xcas answers, the matrix delimiters are [] (bold brackets). For example, [1,2,3] is the matrix [[1,2,3]] with only one row, unlike [1,2,3] (normal brackets) which is the list [1,2,3].
In this document, the input notation ([[1,2,3]]) will be used for input and output.

5.45  Arithmetic and matrix

5.46  Linear algebra

5.47  Linear Programmation

Linear programming problems are maximization problem of a linear functionals under linear equality or inequality constraints. The most simple case can be solved directly by the so-called simplex algorithm. Most cases require to solve an auxiliary linear programming problem to find an initial vertex for the simplex algorithm.

5.48  Nonlinear optimization

5.49  Different matrix norm

5.50  Matrix reduction

5.51  Isometries

5.52  Matrix factorizations

Note that most matrix factorization algorithms are implemented numerically, only a few of them will work symbolically.

5.53  Quadratic forms

5.54  Multivariate calculus

5.55  Equations

5.56  Linear systems

In this paragraph, we call the "augmented matrix" of the system A · X=B (or matrix "representing" the system A · X=B), the matrix obtained by gluing the column vector B or −B to the right of the matrix A, as with border(A,tran(B)).

5.57  Differential equations

This section is limited to symbolic (or exact) solutions of differential equations. For numeric solutions of differential equations, see odesolve. For graphic representation of solutions of differential equations, see plotfield, plotode and interactive_plotode.

5.58  Other functions

Chapter 6  Graphs

Most graph instructions take expressions as arguments. A few exceptions (mostly Maple-compatibility instructions) also accept functions. Some optional arguments, like color, thickness, can be used as optional attributes in all graphic instructions. They are described below.

6.1  Graph and geometric objects attributes

There are two kinds of attributes: global attributes of a graphic scene and individual attributes.

6.2  Graph of a function : plotfunc funcplot DrawFunc Graph

6.3  2d graph for Maple compatibility : plot

plot(f(x),x) draws the graph of y=f(x). The second argument may specify the range of values x=xmin..xmax. One can also plot a function instead of an expression using the syntax plot(f,xmin..xmax). plot accepts an optional argument to specify the step used in x for the discretization with xstep= or the number of points of the discretization with nstep=.
Input :


Output :

the graph of y=x^2-2

Input :


or :


Output :

a polygonal line which is a bad representation of y=x^2-2



6.4  3d surfaces for Maple compatibility plot3d

plot3d takes three arguments : a function of two variables or an expression of two variables or a list of three functions of two variables or a list of three expressions of two variables and the names of these two variables with an optional range (for expressions) or the ranges (for functions).
plot3d(f(x,y),x,y) (resp. plot3d([f(u,v),g(u,v),h(u,v)],u,v)) draws the surface z=f(x,y) (resp. x=f(u,v),y=g(u,v),z=h(u,v)). The syntax plot3d(f(x,y),x=x0..x1,y=y0..y1) or plot3d(f,x0..x1,y0..y1) specifies which part of surface will be computed (otherwise default values are taken from the graph configuration).
Input :


Output :

The surface z=x*y

Input :


Output :

The cone x=v*cos(u),y=v*sin(u),z=v

Input :


Output :

A portion of the cone x=v*cos(u),y=v*sin(u),z=v

6.5  Graph of a line and tangent to a graph

6.6  Graph of inequalities with 2 variables : plotinequation inequationplot

plotinequation([f1(x,y)<a1,,y)<ak],[x=x1..x2,y=y1..y2]) draws the points of the plane whose coordinates satisfy the inequalities of 2 variables :

,    x1≤ x ≤ x2, y1 ≤ y ≤ y

Input :

plotinequation(x^2-y^2<3, [x=-2..2,y=-2..2],xstep=0.1,ystep=0.1)

Output :

the filled portion enclosing the origin and limited by the hyperbola x^2-y^2=3

Input :

plotinequation([x+y>3,x^2<y], [x-2..2,y=-1..10],xstep=0.2,ystep=0.2)

Output :

the filled portion of the plane defined by -2<x<2,y<10,x+y>3,y>x^2

Note that if the ranges for x and y are not specified, Xcas takes the default values of X-,X+,Y-,Y+ defined in the general graphic configuration (CfgGraphic configuration).

6.7  Graph of the area below a curve : plotarea areaplot

6.8  Contour lines: plotcontour contourplot DrwCtour

plotcontour(f(x,y),[x,y]) (or DrwCtour(f(x,y),[x,y]) or
contourplot(f(x,y),[x,y])) draws the contour lines of the surface defined by z=f(x,y) for z=−10, z=−8, .., z=0, z=2, .., z=10. You may specify the desired contour lines by a list of values of z given as third argument.
Input :

plotcontour(x^2+y^2,[x=-3..3,y=-3..3],[1,2,3], display=[green,red,black]+[filled$3])

Output :

the graph of the three ellipses x^2-y^2=n for n=1,2,3; the zones between these ellipses are filled with the color green,red or black

Input :


Output :

the graph of 11 hyperbolas x^2-y^2=n for n=-10,-8,..10

If you want to draw the surface in 3-d representation, input plotfunc(f(x,y),[x,y]), see 6.2.2):

plotfunc( x^2-y^2,[x,y])

Output :

A 3D representation of z=x^2+y^2

6.9  2-d graph of a 2-d function with colors : plotdensity densityplot

plotdensity(f(x,y),[x,y]) or densityplot(f(x,y),[x,y]) draws the graph of z=f(x,y) in the plane where the values of z are represented by the rainbow colors. The optional argument z=zmin..zmax specifies the range of z corresponding to the full rainbow, if it is not specified, it is deduced from the minimum and maximum value of f on the discretization. The discretization may be specified by optional xstep=... and ystep=... or nstep=... arguments.
Input :

plotdensity(x^2-y^2,[x=-2..2,y=-2..2], xstep=0.1,ystep=0.1)

Output :

A 2D graph where each hyperbola defined by x^2-y^2=z has a color from the rainbow

Remark : A rectangle representing the scale of colors is displayed below the graph.

6.10  Implicit graph: plotimplicit implicitplot

plotimplicit or implicitplot draws curves or surfaces defined by an implicit expression or equation. If the option unfactored is given as last argument, the original expression is taken unmodified. Otherwise, the expression is normalized, then replaced by the factorization of the numerator of its normalization.

Each factor of the expression corresponds to a component of the implicit curve or surface. For each factor, Xcas tests if it is of total degree less or equal to 2, in that case conic or quadric is called. Otherwise the numeric implicit solver is called.

Optional step and ranges arguments may be passed to the numeric implicit solver, note that they are dismissed for each component that is a conic or a quadric.

6.11  Parametric curves and surfaces : plotparam paramplot DrawParm

6.12  Curve defined in polar coordinates : plotpolar polarplot DrawPol courbe_polaire

Let Et be an expression depending on the variable t.
plotpolar(Et,t) draws the polar representation of the curve defined by ρ=Et for θ=t, that is in cartesian coordinates the curve (Et cos(t),Et sin(t)). The range of the parameter may be specified by replacing the second argument by t=tmin..tmax. The discretization parameter may be specified by an optional tstep=... argument.


Output :

The spiral ρ=t is plotted



or :


Output :

A polygon line approaching the spiral ρ=t is plotted

6.13  Graph of a recurrent sequence : plotseq seqplot graphe_suite

Let f(x) be an expression depending on the variable x (resp. f(t) an expression depending on the variable t).
plotseq(f(x),a,n) (resp. plotseq(f(t),t=a,n)) draws the line y=x, the graph of y=f(x) (resp. y=f(t)) and the n first terms of the recurrent sequence defined by : u0=a, un=f(un−1). The a value may be replaced by a list of 3 elements, [a,x,x+] where x..x+ will be passed as x range for the graph computation.
Input :


Output :

the graph of y=sqrt(1+x), of y=x and of the 5 first terms of the sequence u_0=3 and u_n=sqrt(1+u_(n-1))

6.14  Tangent field : plotfield fieldplot

Input :


Output :

Segments with slope 4*sin(t*y), representing tangents, are plotting in different points

With two variables x,y, input :


6.15  Plotting a solution of a differential equation : plotode odeplot

Let f(t,y) be an expression depending on two variables t and y.

Input :


Output :

The graph of the solution of y’=sin(t,y) crossing through the point (0,1)

Input :

S:=odeplot([h-0.3*h*p, 0.3*h*p-p], [t,h,p],[0,0.3,0.7])

Output, the graph in the space of the solution of :

[h,p]′=[h−0.3 h*p, 0.3 h*pp]    [h,p](0)=[0.3,0.7] 

To have a 2-d graph (in the plane), use the option plane

S:=odeplot([h-0.3*h*p, 0.3*h*p-p], [t,h,p],[0,0.3,0.7],plane)

To compute the values of the solution, see the subsection 8.3.4.

6.16  Interactive plotting of solutions of a differential equation : interactive_plotode interactive_odeplot

Let f(t,y) be an expression depending on two variables t and y.
interactive_plotode(f(t,y),[t,y]) draws the tangent field of the differential equation y′=f(t,y) in a new window. In this window, one can click on a point to get the plot of the solution of y′=f(t,y) crossing through this point.
You can further click to display several solutions. To stop press the Esc key.
Input :


Output :

The tangent field is plotted with the solutions of y’=sin(t,y) crossing through the points defined by mouse clicks

6.17  Animated graphs (2D, 3D or "4D")

Xcas can display animated 2D, 3D or "4D" graphs. This is done first by computing a sequence of graphic objects, then after completion, by displaying the sequence in a loop.

Chapter 7  Statistics

7.1  One variable statistics

Xcas has several functions to perform statistics; the data is typically given as a list of numbers, such as A := [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11]. We will use this particular list in several examples. Section 5.45.31 will discuss statistics on matrices.

7.2  Two variable statistics

7.3  Random numbers

7.4  Density and distribution functions

7.5  Hypothesis testing

Chapter 8  Numerical computations

Real numbers may have an exact representation (e.g. rationals, symbolic expressions involving square roots or constants like π, ...) or approximate representation, which means that the real is represented by a rational (with a denominator that is a power of the basis of the representation) close to the real. Inside Xcas, the standard scientific notation is used for approximate representation, that is a mantissa (with a point as decimal separator) optionally followed by the letter e and an integer exponent.

Note that the real number 10−4 is an exact number but 1e−4 is an approximate representation of this number.

8.1  Floating point representation.

In this section, we explain how real numbers are represented.

8.2  Approx. evaluation : evalf approx and Digits

evalf or approx evaluates to a numeric approximation (if possible).
Input :


Output, if in the cas configuration (Cfg menu) Digits=7 (that is hardware floats are used, and 7 digits are displayed) :


You can change the number of digits in a command line by assigning the variable DIGITS or Digits. Input :


Output :


Input :


Output :


Input :


Output :


Input :


Output :


8.3  Numerical algorithms

8.4  Solve equations with fsolve nSolve

fsolve or nSolve solves numeric equations (unlike solve or proot, it is not limited to polynomial equations) of the form:

f(x)=0,    x ∈ ]a,b

fsolve or nSolve accepts a last optional argument, the name of an iterative algorithm to be used by the GSL solver. The different methods are explained in the following section.

8.5  Solve systems with fsolve

Xcas provides six methods (inherited from the GSL) to solve numeric systems of equations of the form f(x)=0:

All methods use an iteration of Newton kind


The four methods hybrid*_solver use also a method of gradient descent when the Newton iteration would make a too large step. The length of the step is computed without scaling for hybrid_solver and hybridj_solver or with scaling (computed from f′(xn)) for hybrids_solver and hybridsj_solver.

8.6  Numeric roots of a polynomial : proot

proot takes as argument a squarefree polynomial, either in symbolic form or as a list of polynomial coefficients (written by decreasing order).
proot returns a list of the numeric roots of this polynomial.
To find the numeric roots of P(x)=x3+1, input :


or :


Output :


To find the numeric roots of x2−3, input :


or :


Output :


8.7  Numeric factorization of a matrix : cholesky qr lu svd

Matrix numeric factorizations of

are described in section 5.52.

Chapter 9  Unit objects and physical constants

The Phys menu contains:

9.1  Unit objects

9.2  Constants

Chapter 10  Programming

10.1  Functions, programs and scripts

10.2  Basic instructions

10.3  Control structures

10.4  Other useful instructions

10.5  Debugging

Chapter 11  Two-dimensional Graphics

11.1  Introduction

11.2  Basic commands

11.3  Display features of graphics

11.4  Define geometric objects without drawing them: nodisp

The nodisp command will define an object without displaying it. Setting a variable to a graphic object draws the object.

C := point(1+i)

will define the point C as well as draw it. Setting a variable to a graphic object inside the nodisp command will not draw the object.

nodisp(C:= point(1+i))

will define the point C but not display it. This is equivalent to following the command with :;,

C := point(1+i):;

To define a point as above and display it without the label, enter the point’s name;


Alternatively, define the point within an eval statement;

eval(C := point(1+i))

defines C as the point, displays the point, but doesn’t display the label. To later display the point with a label, use the legend command.





In this case, the string "C" can be replaced with any other string as a label. Alternatively, redefine the variable as itself;

C := C

prints C with its label.

11.5  Geometric demonstrations: assume

Variables should be unspecified to demonstrate a general geometric result, but need to have specific values when drawing. There are a couple of different approaches of dealing with this.

One approach is to use the assume command. If a variable is assumed to have a value, then that value will be used in graphics but the variable will still be unspecified for calculations. For example,

assume(a = 2.1)


A := point(a + i)

will draw a point at the coordinate (2.1,1),

but the variable a will still be treated as a variable in calculations;



sqrt((-a)^2 + 1)

Another approach would be to use point or pointer mode in a geometry screen. If there isn’t a geometry screen showing, the command Alt-G or the GeoNew figure 2d menu will open a screen. Clicking on the Mode button right above the graphic screen and choosing pointer or point will put the screen in pointer or point mode. If a point is defined and displayed, such as with A := point(2.1 + i), then clicking on the name of the point (A in this case) with the right mouse button will bring up a configuration screen. As long as there is a point defined with non-symbolic values, there sill be a symb box on the configuration screen. Selecting the symb box and choosing OK will be equivalent to the commands assume(Ax=[2.1,-8.16901408451,8.16901408451]) and assume(Ay = [1, -5.0, 5.0], this will bring up two lines beneath the arrows to the right of the screen which can be used to change the assumed values of Ax and Ay. Also, the point A will be redefined as point(Ax,Ay).

11.6  Points in the plane

11.7  Lines in plane geometry

11.8  Triangles in the plane

See section 12.7 for triangles in space.

11.9  Quadrilaterals in the plane

See section 12.8 for quadrilaterals in space.

11.10  Other polygons in the plane

See section 12.9 for polygons in space.

11.11  Circles

11.12  Other conic sections

11.13  Coordinates in the plane

11.14  Measurements

11.15  Transformations

11.16  Properties

11.17  Harmonic division

11.18  Loci and envelopes

Chapter 12  Three-dimensional Graphics

12.1  Introduction

The Alt+H command brings up a display screen for three-dimensional graphics. This screen has its own menu and command lines.

This screen also automatically appears whenever there is a three-dimensional graphic command.

The plane of vision for a three-dimensional graphic screen is perpendicular to the observer’s line of vision. The plane of vision is also indicated by dotted lines showing its intersection with the parallelepiped. The axis of vision for a three-dimensional graphic screen is

The three-dimensional graphic screen starts with the image of a parallelepiped bounding the graphics and vectors in the x, y and z directions. At the top of the screen is the equation of the plane of vision, which is a plane perpendicular to the observer’s line of vision. The plane of vision is shown graphically with dotted lines indicating where it intersects the plane of vision.

Clicking in the graphic screen outside of the parallelepiped and dragging the mouse moves the x, y and z directions relative to the observer; these directions are also changed with the x, X, y, Y, z and Z keys. Scrolling the mouse wheel moves the plane of vision along the line of vision. The in and out buttons on the graphic screen menu zoom in and out of the picture.

The graphical features available for two-dimensional graphics (see section 11.3) are also available for three-dimensional graphics, but to see the points the markers must be squares with width (point_width) at least 3.

The graphic screen menu has a cfg button which brings up a configuration screen. Among other things, this screen has

12.2  Change the view

The depictions of three-dimensional objects are made with a coordinate system Oxyz, where the x axis is horizontal and directed right, the y axis is vertical and directed up, and the z axis is perpendicular to the screen and directed out of the screen. The depictions can be transformed by changing to a different coordinate system by setting a quaternion. (See section 11.3.2.)

12.3  The axes

12.4  Points in space

12.5  Lines in space

12.6  Planes in space

See also sections 12.5.6 and 12.5.7 for planes perpendicular and orthogonal to lines and planes.

12.7  Triangles in space

12.8  Quadrilaterals in space

See section 11.9 for quadrilaterals in the plane.

12.9  Polygons in space

See section 11.10 for polygons in the plane.

12.10  Circles in space: circle

See section 11.11.1 for circles in the plane.

The circle command returns and draws a circle.

circle takes as arguments one of the following:

In both cases, the first and third arguments can be the coordinates of the point.

12.11  Conics in space

12.12  Three-dimensional coordinates

12.13  Properties

12.14  Transformations in space

12.15  Surfaces

12.16  Solids

12.17  Platonic solids

To specify a Platonic solid, Xcas works with the center, a vertex and a third point to specify a plane of symmetry. To speed up calculations, it may be useful to use approximate calculations, which can be ensured with the evalf command. For example, instead of:


it would typically be better to use:


Chapter 13  Multimedia

13.1  Sounds

13.2  Images

Université de Grenoble, initial translation of parts of the French user manual
Full translation and improvements
Optimization, signal processing. The graph theory is in a separate manual.

This document was translated from LATEX by HEVEA.